Dairy farming is an age old practice that dates back to the history of civilization. Farm animals are considered as an ancient, vital and renewable natural resource. Dairy farming has always been allied with agricultural activities since time immemorial. Dairying as a whole is doing well as the contribution of the crop husbandry in the agriculture GDP is sometime coming down, while the contribution of the livestock sector is going up. Whatever growth that is observed in agriculture sector, a large part (24.7 %) of it is coming from the livestock sector (GOI, 2006). With the production of 104.8 million tonnes in the year 2007, India is the largest milk producer in the world. This huge quantum of milk comes from the 69 million in-milk bovine population. India's contribution of milk to the world stands around 15 per cent with the growth rate of 5 per cent per annum (Annual report, 2008). The major contributors to milk production in India are the landless and lessland owning families (De Leeuw et al., 2000). Rearing of dairy animals had cushioned the rural households' income from instability of crop production, serves as an important supplementary income for the farm families.
For Developing countries there is an urgent need to set in motion a mechanism that would boost trade with each other, that the Association of Southeast Asian Nations was established in 1967. Historically, India s relation with the South-East Asian countries dates back to the first millennium AD when traders from Indian Kingdoms used to have trade with their counterparts residing in many parts of this region. Although after 1947, a qualitative change in the overall situation came following the end of colonial rule in this region. One of the most significant incidents took place in India at the beginning of 90s was the introduction of economic reforms. The Look East policy was launched in India at that point of time to foster extended neighborhood in the east in the post-cold war situation. The trade between India and the member countries of ASEAN in terms of exports and imports also experienced of late a quantum jump. The analysis will be of immense help to the researchers, academics, faculties of colleges and universities particularly in the area of international economics.
Even if the discovery of the photoluminescence of porous silicon dates to more than twenty years ago, the research on the optical properties of silicon is still a hot topic. The most recent experimental techniques have allowed the successful synthesis of silicon nanoparticles with narrow size distributions, and the realization of light-emitting silicon devices for technological and biomedical applications. From the theoretical point of view, the physics of silicon nanocrystals still deserves a huge interest. While the quantum confinement effect has been recognized as the main cause of the photoluminescence, many doubts remain on the way in which the phenomenon takes place in real nanocrystals. This book summarizes the result of a work lead by the author at the University of Naples. The density of states, the optical gap, the absorption spectra, the static dielectric constant, the recombination times, are all illustrated for several sets of silicon spheres and ellipsoids, upon changing their size and aspect ratio. The book also reviews previous research work, with special reference to the experimental and theoretical literature on silicon nanocrystals.
Taxation has a rich background which dates back to Pre-independence era. Prior to Nigeria independence, the Emirs, Obas and Obis collected various taxes. The tax administers then was the Emirs', Obas' Obis' agents. However, there are various definitions of tax or taxation depending on the qualities it possesses. Taxation therefore is the process or machinery by which communities or group of persons are made to contribute... in some agreed quantum and method for purpose of the administration and development of the society (Igbonyi, 2008).
The Russian edition of the present book was published in June 2013. It just happened that it was the time between two significant dates: in 2011 the Nobel Prize was awarded ``for the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe through observations of distant Supernovae'' and in 2013 the Nobel Prize was awarded ``for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of the mass of subatomic particles''. Both these formulations left the questions about the explanations of these phenomena in the framework of the fundamental principles open. Our book is devoted to attempts to explain the observed ``long distances to the Supernovae'' and ``the small value of the Higgs particle mass'' by the principles of affine and conformal symmetries and the vacuum postulate. Both these phenomena are described by quantum gravity in the form of joint irreducible unitary representations of the affine and conformal symmetry groups. These representations were used in our book to classify physical processes in the Universe, including its origin from the vacuum.
In this book, we discuss the path integral quantization and the stochastic quantization of classical mechanics and classical field theory. Forthe description ofthe classical theory, we have two methods, one based on the Lagrangian formalism and the other based on the Hamiltonian formal ism. The Hamiltonian formalism is derived from the Lagrangian·formalism. In the standard formalism ofquantum mechanics, we usually make use ofthe Hamiltonian formalism. This fact originates from the following circumstance which dates back to the birth of quantum mechanics. The first formalism ofquantum mechanics is Schrodinger's wave mechan ics. In this approach, we regard the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of analytical mechanics as the Eikonal equation of "geometrical mechanics". Based on the optical analogy, we obtain the Schrodinger equation as a result ofthe inverse of the Eikonal approximation to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and thus we arrive at "wave mechanics". The second formalism ofquantum mechanics is Heisenberg's "matrix me chanics". In this approach, we arrive at the Heisenberg equation of motion from consideration of the consistency of the Ritz combination principle, the Bohr quantization condition and the Fourier analysis of a physical quantity. These two formalisms make up the Hamiltonian.formalism of quantum me chanics.
Now with over 4,000 entries, this new eighth edition has been fully updated to reflect progress in physics and related fields. It sees expansion to the areas of cosmology, astrophysics, condensed matter, quantum technology, and nanotechnology, with 125 new entries including Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, kilonova, leptoquark, and muscovium.The dictionary's range of appendices, updated for the new edition, includes the periodic table, the electromagnetic spectrum, and a detailed chronology of key dates. 15 new diagrams add to the clarity and accessibility of the text, with 150 line drawings, tables, and graphs in total, and many entries contain recommended web links.This popular dictionary remains the most up-to-date of its kind: the essential introductory reference tool for students encountering physics terms and concepts, as well as for professionals and anyone with an interest in the subject.
The subject of this book stands at the crossroads of ergodic theory and measurable dynamics. With an emphasis on irreversible systems, the text presents a framework of multi-resolutions tailored for the study of endomorphisms, beginning with a systematic look at the latter. This entails a whole new set of tools, often quite different from those used for the "easier" and well-documented case of automorphisms. Among them is the construction of a family of positive operators (transfer operators), arising naturally as a dual picture to that of endomorphisms. The setting (close to one initiated by S. Karlin in the context of stochastic processes) is motivated by a number of recent applications, including wavelets, multi-resolution analyses, dissipative dynamical systems, and quantum theory. The automorphism-endomorphism relationship has parallels in operator theory, where the distinction is between unitary operators in Hilbert space and more general classes of operators such as contractions. There is also a non-commutative version: While the study of automorphisms of von Neumann algebras dates back to von Neumann, the systematic study of their endomorphisms is more recent, together with the results in the main text, the book includes a review of recent related research papers, some by the co-authors and their collaborators.
In this book, we discuss the path integral quantization and the stochastic quantization of classical mechanics and classical field theory. Forthe description ofthe classical theory, we have two methods, one based on the Lagrangian formalism and the other based on the Hamiltonian formal ism. The Hamiltonian formalism is derived from the Lagrangian·formalism. In the standard formalism ofquantum mechanics, we usually make use ofthe Hamiltonian formalism. This fact originates from the following circumstance which dates back to the birth of quantum mechanics. The first formalism ofquantum mechanics is Schrodinger's wave mechan ics. In this approach, we regard the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of analytical mechanics as the Eikonal equation of 'geometrical mechanics'. Based on the optical analogy, we obtain the Schrodinger equation as a result ofthe inverse of the Eikonal approximation to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and thus we arrive at 'wave mechanics'. The second formalism ofquantum mechanics is Heisenberg's 'matrix me chanics'. In this approach, we arrive at the Heisenberg equation of motion from consideration of the consistency of the Ritz combination principle, the Bohr quantization condition and the Fourier analysis of a physical quantity. These two formalisms make up the Hamiltonian.formalism of quantum me chanics.